The endocrine system is a complex network of glands that produces and secretes hormones into the bloodstream, regulating various bodily functions and maintaining hormonal balance. In the reproductive system, the primary hormones include estrogen in females, which enables the eggs to mature, and testosterone in males, which stimulates sperm production.


A board-certified reproductive endocrinologist, also known as a fertility specialist, has advanced training in obstetrics and gynecology, followed by additional specialized training in reproductive endocrinology and infertility. These healthcare providers primarily focus on hormonal and reproductive endocrine disorders in both males and females. Their areas of expertise include fertility conditions and issues such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), menstrual irregularities, menopause-related concerns, cancer and fertility (oncofertility), diminished ovarian reserve (low quality and quantity of eggs), recurrent pregnancy loss, and more.

Education and Training

Endocrinologists who specialize in fertility have extensive education, training, and experience, including:

  • A four-year science-based bachelor’s degree (e.g., biology, chemistry, or pre-med)
  • Four years of medical school (DO or MD)
  • A four-year residency program in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • A fellowship in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility (after the obstetrics and gynecology residency)
  • Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility board certification
  • Subspecialty training (e.g., assisted reproductive technology, male infertility, third-party reproduction, or other subspecialties)

In addition to physicians, there are also mid-level providers, such as nurse practitioners and physician associates, that also practice within the field of fertility care.

Why See a Reproductive Endocrinology Specialist?

Reproductive endocrinologists offer a wide range of fertility care services, treatments, and diagnostic procedures, including:


    • Fertility evaluations – an evaluation of a person’s or couple’s overall reproductive health to identify any underlying issues affecting fertility
    • Ovulation induction – stimulating the ovaries to produce multiple eggs for fertilization by administration of medication such as clomiphene citrate
    • Intrauterine insemination (IUI) – the process of depositing sperm directly into the uterus during ovulation to increase the chances of fertilization
    • In vitro fertilization (IVF) – retrieving eggs from the ovaries, fertilizing them with sperm outside of the body, then transferring resulting embryos into the uterus
    • Preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) – screening of embryos for genetic and chromosomal abnormalities before being transferred to the uterus
    • Fertility preservation – cryopreservation and freezing of genetic materials, including eggs, sperm, and embryos
    • Oncofertility – fertility preservation in individuals who may undergo cancer treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) that could potentially affect their reproductive capabilities.
    • Third-party reproduction – fertility care involving either donated genetic materials (eggs, sperm, or embryos) or gestational surrogacy
    • LGBTQ+ family building

Fertility Evaluation Procedures

Reproductive endocrinologists are highly skilled at conducting comprehensive evaluations to determine the cause of infertility in individuals and couples. Once a diagnosis is made, these reproductive specialists develop and implement personalized treatment plans to assist individuals and couples to conceive. Common diagnostic procedures include:

  • Hormonal testing – assessing the level of reproductive hormones such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone
  • Ovarian reserve testing – evaluating the quantity of a person’s eggs via blood and ultrasound imaging tests
  • Hysterosalpingography (HSG) – an imaging test to evaluate the fallopian tubes and uterine cavity for abnormalities and blockages
  • Laparoscopy – a non-invasive surgical procedure to check the pelvic organs for abnormalities or endometriosis

Our Reproductive Endocrinologists

The role of reproductive endocrinology specialists is to help individuals and couples overcome reproductive challenges, and optimize fertility to achieve their family planning goals. It’s important to note that specific services, treatments, and subspecialties may vary among different fertility clinics and individual practitioners.

If you’re ready to take the next step, contact Main Line Fertility to schedule a consultation with one of our esteemed reproductive endocrinologists.