The combination of infrequent menstruation and signs of excess male hormone secretion has been dubbed the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Many women with PCOS have slightly enlarged ovaries that contain an increased number of small fluid spaces. Investigation of PCOS involves ultrasound visualization of the ovaries as well as blood testing to measure male and insulin hormones.

Treatments depend on the needs of the women – fertility versus menstrual cycle control versus minimization of acne or excess hair growth.